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To distinguish the two, Stephen Downes proposed the terms "c MOOC" and "x MOOC".
c MOOCs are based on principles from connectivist pedagogy indicating that material should be aggregated (rather than pre-selected), remixable, re-purposable, and feeding forward (i.e.
Harvard joined the group, renamed ed X, that spring, and University of California, Berkeley joined in the summer.
Typically fewer than five percent of the students would complete a course.Alongside the development of these open courses, other E-learning platforms emerged — such as Khan Academy, Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU), Udemy, and ALISON — which are viewed as similar to MOOCs and work outside the university system or emphasize individual self-paced lessons.